What is Chemotherapy Induced Neutropenia?

It is all about Chemotherapy Induced Neutropenia disease

Neutrophils belong to the phagocyte system and represent the first cellular components of the inflammatory response and key components of innate immunity. Most healthy people have an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of approximately 1,500–7000/mm’ of blood. When levels of neutrophils drop below 1,500/mm’ of blood,Guest Posting the condition is called neutropenia.

As a consequence of systemic cancer treatment, neutropenia is the most common and potentially serious hematological complication in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Neutropenia of this etiology is commonly known as Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN). Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN) is the primary dose-limiting toxicity in patients with cancer treated with chemotherapy. It can lead to febrile neutropenia (FN), and it is associated with increased morbidity and early mortality, increased medical costs, and disruptions in potentially curative treatments.

The risk of infection in CIN patients ranges between 10% and 50% for patients with solid tumors and more than 80% for hematological malignancies. Several risk factors for CIN include older age, female gender, poor performance status, albumin level

What are the symptoms of Chemotherapy-Induced neutropenia?

The symptoms of CIN that most patients observe are chills or sweating, Sore throat, sores in the mouth, or a toothache, abdominal pain, pain near the anus and others. The initial evaluation of a patient with CIN includes medical history, initial physical assessments, urinalysis, sputum, stool cultures, laboratory tests—including complete blood cell counts with differential leukocyte and platelet counts—are needed to determine ANC and neutropenia severity.

The timing of the drop in neutrophil levels is based on the type or dose of chemotherapy. Neutrophil counts generally start to drop about a week after each round of chemotherapy begins.

The management of CIN involves two main strategies: modification of the chemotherapy regimen and/or the use of growth factors. The optimal strategy for the management of CIN is prevention. In the management of CIN, myeloid growth factors (MGFs), including G-CSF and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), are used in clinical practice to reduce the risk of febrile neutropenia (FN) and its complications.

Also read- Chemotherapy Induced Neutropenia Market

What are the four formulations?

Currently there are four recombinant G-CSF formulations: filgrastim (nonglycosylated), lenograstim (glycosylated), pegfilgrastim (filgrastim in pegylated version), and lipefilgrastim (filgrastim in glycosylate version). Current treatment for neutropenia associated with chemotherapy is limited to two approved biologics such as Neupogen (filgrastim) and Neulasta (pegfilgrastim) and their biosimilars. Biosimilar versions exist for filgrastim and pegfilgrastim. The pegylated version differs for the different plasma half-life, much longer than the non-pegylated version (3–4 h), and allows a single administration of the drug per chemotherapy cycle.